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What health reform means for the people of Illinois

A blog by IllinoisHealthMatters.org

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Food Keeps Illinois Families Healthy: Help Illinois Reduce the SNAP Gap

Forty-eight million Americans live in food insecure households, meaning they worry about where and how to find their next meal. Many of these individuals and families are covered by Medicaid but are not receiving critical nutritional support. They are eligible for SNAP which could help support their nutrition and improve their health, but they are not enrolled.

What is SNAP?

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps) helps low-income households purchase adequate, nutritious food. Benefits are distributed monthly on an Electronic Benefits Transfer card, known as “Link” in Illinois, which acts much like a debit card. Money from SNAP can be spent at authorized retailers, and some farmers markets, on any foods that recipients prepare and eat at home. SNAP recipients nationally spend over 85 percent of benefits on fruits and vegetables, grains, dairy, meat and meat alternatives. Beneficiaries also increase the amount of money they spend on groceries each month, instead of simply replacing their food budget with SNAP dollars. By supplementing, not replacing, grocery budgets and allowing for the purchase of more nutritious food, SNAP reduces food insecurity in low-income households. This is particularly true of households with children.

Why Help Consumers Apply for SNAP Benefits?

Connecting more Medicaid recipients with SNAP benefits can address food insecurity and inadequate nutrition, which this population experiences at high rates, and improve health outcomes. In addition to helping a family afford healthier food, children who receive nutrition supports are healthier and more likely to finish school while participating in the program. A report recently released by the White House Council of Economic Advisers details the long-term benefits of this program, including: for mother’s receiving support during pregnancy, reductions in incidences of low birth-weights; and for adults who received support when they were children, reductions in obesity rates and metabolic syndrome, increased likelihood of having completed high school, and significant improvements in overall health and economic self-sufficiency among women.

New Opportunities in Illinois to Reduce the SNAP Gap

The Affordable Care Act has made it easier for low-income individuals and families to access public benefits by helping states pay for electronic systems to apply for benefits. In Illinois, the new Application for Benefits Eligibility enables applicants to submit a single application for both SNAP and Medicaid. However, despite this improved online application, we have not fully reduced the “SNAP Gap”—the number of Medicaid clients who are income-eligible for SNAP but do not receive this benefit.  We need to work with medical providers, medical plans, social service organizations and other partners to make sure that everyone who is eligible for SNAP gets the help they need to pay for healthy food.

The newest change to the Illinois SNAP program is that on January 1, 2016, Illinois raised the gross income limit for SNAP from 130% to 165% of the federal poverty level, making nearly 40,000 low-income working families newly eligible for SNAP. With more families in Illinois now eligible for SNAP and the ability to submit a single application for both SNAP and Medicaid benefits, it’s time to close the SNAP Gap and make sure families have the food they need to stay healthy. If you’re not familiar with SNAP’s application process join us on HelpHub for more information and resources for both providers and consumers.

MacKenzie Speer
Advocacy Program Associate
Sargent Shriver National Center on Poverty Law

Blogger Tricks

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Clarifying, Eliminating and Enforcing Special Enrollment Periods

As the Health Insurance Marketplace grows and matures, we continue to listen and learn to find ways to make it work even better for consumers and those who serve consumers. We know that each year, as the Marketplace evolves, we must seek to continually adapt and refine the way we operate. In addition to continually improving the consumer experience, we also must make changes to keep the Marketplace vibrant, stable and strong.

The fundamental principles to achieve this are simple: the Marketplace must be attractive for consumers, and the Marketplace must be attractive for insurance companies that offer plans on it.

Consumers need to know that affordable options are available and that insurers are competing for their business. We know that consumers want affordable health care and value the insurance they’re finding at the Health Insurance Marketplaces. This Open Enrollment we’ve seen a significant influx of new consumers – many of them young – making it clear there is still a large untapped market for insurance companies to serve.

The Marketplace must also be attractive to insurers, so that they make quality plans available at affordable prices and continue to drive innovation, and so consumers can find plans that meet their health and budget needs. Building an attractive Marketplace starts with establishing a predictable, stable set of rules that help to keep the risk pool balanced. As the Marketplace grows and evolves, we continue to analyze data to understand how our rules are impacting insurers and consumers and to make sure they are working to sustain a stable Marketplace. By having clear rules for how the Marketplace operates and making adjustments when needed, we are creating a more stable rate environment with more affordable plan choices for consumers.

One of the areas we have been reviewing closely is the special enrollment periods we offer. Special enrollment periods are an important way to make sure that people who lose their health insurance during the year or who experience a major life change like getting married or having a child, have the opportunity to enroll in coverage through the Marketplaces. People who experience these qualifying events have the opportunity to enroll in coverage outside of the normal Open Enrollment period from November 1 to January 31, similar to how enrollment works in the employer market. In addition, in the first two years of the Marketplace, a number of special enrollment periods were created for consumers who were still learning how to enroll in coverage for the first time.

As the Marketplace matures and consumers learn more about how and when to enroll, we continue to review the rules around special enrollment periods in order to keep them fair for consumers and for issuers. We are taking initial steps in adjusting how special enrollment periods work – and will continue to make further adjustments in the future based on what we learn from continued monitoring and analysis of special enrollment period usage and compliance.

The action we are taking today announces the elimination of several unnecessary special enrollment periods, clarifies the definitions of other special enrollment periods, and provides stronger enforcement so that special enrollment periods serve the purpose for which they are intended and do not provide unintended loopholes.

Eliminating Unnecessary Special Enrollment Periods

Last month, we announced that the Tax Season special enrollment period will no longer be offered. Today we are announcing the elimination of six other special enrollment periods that are no longer needed. Just as the Marketplace evolves, so too does consumer behavior. The rules we use to operate the Marketplace need to keep up with these changes. As such, special enrollment periods are no longer available for:

  • Consumers who enrolled with too much in advance payments of the premium tax credit because of a redundant or duplicate policy
  • Consumers who were affected by an error in the treatment of Social Security Income for tax dependents
  • Lawfully present non-citizens that were affected by a system error in determination of their advance payments of the premium tax credit
  • Lawfully present non-citizens with incomes below 100% FPL who experienced certain processing delays
  • Consumers who were eligible for or enrolled in COBRA and not sufficiently informed about their coverage options
  • Consumers who were previously enrolled in the Pre-Existing Condition Health Insurance Program
We’ll continue to monitor how special enrollment periods are used and may make changes in the future as Marketplace systems and operations continue to improve.

Clarifying Eligibility

Our review of current special enrollment periods also showed that some of the eligibility guidelines need to be further clarified so consumers can understand the intent and so they will not be abused. Today we are updating guidance to more clearly define the special enrollment period that is available to consumers who permanently moved, and as a result, gained access to new health plans. Specifically, we clarify that this special enrollment period cannot be used for a short-term or temporary move where the consumer doesn’t plan to stay in their new location, including situations in which a consumer is admitted to a hospital for treatment in a different area. This clarification is intended to assist consumers, brokers, issuers and others in understanding who is eligible for this special enrollment period.

If we identify other areas where the rules for special enrollment periods are unclear, we will issue additional clarifying guidance as needed.

Enforcing the Rules

Finally, we will take steps to make sure that consumers understand and comply with the rules. We will conduct an assessment of plan selections that are made through certain special enrollment periods to evaluate whether consumers properly accessed coverage. Our program integrity team will pull samples of consumer records nationally and may request additional information from some consumers or take other steps to validate that consumers properly qualified for these special enrollment periods. The findings from the assessment will help us to inform future policy and operational improvements to enhance program integrity. Additional details will be provided in the coming weeks.

We will also emphasize more strongly to applicants that the law requires that consumers provide accurate information to the Marketplace, and they may be subject to penalties under federal law if they intentionally provide false or untrue information.

There is still time for consumers who need coverage to enroll during the Open Enrollment period that ends on January 31st. While there will continue to be special enrollment periods for people who lose coverage mid-year or experience other life changes, this channel for enrollment will not be available for the vast majority of consumers. For example, special enrollment periods are not allowed for people who choose to remain uninsured and then decide they need health insurance when they get sick.  Consumers who do not currently have other health insurance coverage should enroll through the Marketplace now during these last two weeks of Open Enrollment, to make sure they have coverage if they get sick and to avoid the tax penalty.

This was originally posted on the CMS Blog.

Kevin Counihan
Health Insurance Marketplace 

Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Engaging Uninsured Cynics of the ACA

On a blistering cold Chicago night in November 2013, I met with Lorena, a 25-year-old uninsured Mexican-American bartender whose income fell below $18,000.  Lorena belonged to a group that health policy experts refer to as “newly-eligibles,” single able-bodied adults without children living in poverty who now qualify for Medicaid thanks to the Affordable Care Act.

Lorena could have enrolled herself with relative ease. At the time, outreach efforts for the ACA were in full swing. In her home neighborhood of Pilsen, health navigators, insurance brokers, and nonprofit organizations were at soup kitchens, schools, taxi stands, and social service organizations spreading word and enrolling thousands. Our conversation, however, revealed something surprising.

“Do you plan on applying for health insurance through the Affordable Care Act?” I asked sitting across from her at a south loop coffee shop near the bar she worked.

“No,” she bluntly replied.

“Why not?” I asked.

“Mainly because I don’t trust government. I think anything they’re going to be putting out is flawed.”  
“What makes you so distrustful?” I asked.

“My friend got these really strong stomach pains and almost fainted so I took her to the county hospital. We were there sitting for hours in the emergency room! The nurses were all hanging out at the desk giggling and laughing and talking to each other drinking their coffee and my friend is bent over like this [Lorena hunches over as she speaks] ready to pass out! I yelled at one of them, “are you gonna take care of her?” They came back to me laughing [telling me], “I’m sorry, we’re actually really professional.”

“What happened to your friend?”

“She was really dehydrated and had a bad urinary tract infection. She spent the night at the hospital which cost her $2300.”

“That experience made you distrustful?”

“Yeah, it’s terrible. When I look at the actual doctors [at the county hospital], they’re very professional and educated but everything else is downhill. With these county clinics, the staff sucks! It’s like they’re hiring just anybody.”

Being Uninsured a Conscious Decision

From November 2013-April 2014, I interviewed 45 uninsured adults like Lorena (between 21 and 35, single, without children, low-income) as part of an ethnographic study of the uninsured in the age of the Affordable Care Act. To my surprise, two-thirds refused to enroll or even inquire about the ACA because of their cynicism in government or the quality of health care provided by Cook County. For people like Lorena, their lack of health insurance did not stem from a lack of outreach or access. Being uninsured was a conscious decision to distance themselves from government and health care agencies.

As outreach efforts continue in Cook County and elsewhere, it is important for health care professionals to remember that the ACA is just one of many arms by which government shapes the lives of the uninsured working poor. For Latinas like Lorena, many of whom have undocumented family members, the ACA is part of the same government body that is deporting family members. For many of my Black respondents, the ACA was seen as part of the same government body whose police force is excessively using deadly force against Black citizens.

Although Medicaid enrollment has exceeded Cook County’s expectations, nearly 600,000 remain uninsured. It’s possible that people like Lorena, with distrust and cynicism toward government and health care, will be the most difficult to enroll.

Lorena’s story highlights the importance of bringing more nuance and strategy to ACA outreach efforts. For cynics of the ACA, simply informing them of their options is not enough to persuade them to enroll. Instead, cynics need to have their opinions validated (no matter how inaccurate or outlandish they might appear) and be empowered to enroll.

Convincing the Skeptics

Two weeks after my interview with Lorena, I observed Abram (a health navigator) put these face-to-face outreach strategies to work during his interaction with Joyce, a 32-year-old cynical and uninsured Black woman. It was family fun night at a Boys and Girls Club in Pilsen. Joyce brought her niece to the event and was sitting at a table eating a sandwich when Abram approached and introduced himself.

“Hi, I’m Abe.”

“Nice to meet you, I’m Joyce.”

“I’m here working for an organization and we’re trying to sign people up for the ACA.”

“Really?” asked Joyce.

“Yes, do you have health insurance now?”


Abe pulled out a bright yellow pamphlet and said, “That’s ok. I can assist you with enrolling. In the end, it is completely up to you to make that final decision if you want to enroll in anything at all. I can start you off to see what’s out there. There’s Medicaid, which is completely free public assistance. With the new Medicaid, insurance companies can no longer deny you for pre-existing conditions.”

Joyce raised her eyebrow asking “Really?”

In response, Abe raised both hands in the air to gesture he meant no harm stuttering “I, I, I, don’t want to make any promises because, obviously, we have to see what plan you are eligible for…”

Joyce interrupted, “But that really means a lot to me because I’ve been denied lots of things in the past.”

Abe continued, “I’m going to leave you with my information [hands her his business card]. [Abe pulls out another sheet of paper] This is a list of documents that we are going to need in order to fill out your application, and I can actually sit down with you, with your permission, to go through the entire application. That is something you could do by yourself if you wanted to, or I could sit down with you and assist you.” One week later, Joyce made an appointment with Abe and enrolled.

Like Lorena, Joyce was skeptical that the Affordable Care Act would benefit her. In my interview with Joyce, she shared frustrating stories of seeking medical treatment for health problems only to be told she was ineligible for assistance.

Abram, however, never discounted or diminished Joyce’s skepticism. Nor did he make any promises that he could not keep. Instead, he validated Joyce’s concerns and reminded her that she was the one in control of the interaction, that she could walk away at any time.

Abram did not have to persuade Joyce to trust government or even health care providers. He just had to convince her to trust him, and he was successful by validating her concerns and empowering her.

The Outreach Road Ahead

As the ACA enters its third year, it is now entering a phase where those with the easiest access have enrolled and where many of the remaining uninsured are the hardest to reach. These include many uninsured adults whose negative experiences with government or health agencies have formed the basis of their outlook toward the ACA.

With face-to-face outreach strategies designed to validate and empower the low-income uninsured into enrolling, organizations conducting outreach for the ACA may be able to continue closing the cracks in the Illinois health insurance safety net. As Joyce said in recalling her interaction with Abe, “He didn’t try to sell me. He just say, once we do this it’s strictly up to you just because you talk with us and give us your information doesn’t mean you have to sign up, the ultimate decision is up to you.”

Robert Vargas
Assistant Professor of Sociology
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Robert is currently conducting research on the Affordable Care Act in Chicago, and the publications from his health care research are available at his website www.robvargas.com.

Thursday, December 10, 2015

Connecting Navigators to Jobs so They Can Continue Connecting Consumers to Coverage

Navigators are key to health care outreach and enrollment across the country, but in Cook County the number of working Navigators is on the decline as grant funding slows. This is not only bad for individual Navigators unable to find work, but compromises the success of future enrollment cycles. In-person assisters of all stripes — including Navigators, Certified Application Counselors, agents, and brokers — play a crucial role in helping people apply for coverage. An Enroll America study found that people who got in-person help were nearly 60 percent likelier to enroll. To help keep assisters in the community, through the Health Insurance Workforce Pipeline Initiative, Health & Disability Advocates and the Chicago Cook County Workforce Partnership are connecting unemployed Navigators with jobs in the health insurance field — specifically as brokers.

Health & Disability Advocates is leveraging its connections in the health insurance community to bring employees and employers to the table. Meanwhile the Chicago Cook Workforce Partnership contributes Workforce Investment Opportunity Act (WIOA) dollars that pay for job-readiness training, workshops, and on-the-job training that new hires may need once they start their jobs as brokers. Since its formation in early May 2015, the Health Insurance Workforce Pipeline Initiative has hosted Rapid Response Workshops that describe the resources available for unemployed or soon-to-be unemployed enrollment assisters. HDA and CCWP also organized an exclusive job fair where Navigators could meet and interview with employers looking to hire.

Former Navigators are already transitioning into new jobs thanks to this initiative. A group of eight new hires who had previously collaborated as enrollment assisters to connect 51,000 people with Medicaid and marketplace coverage will now be working together as brokers, drawing on their experiences as Navigators. According to Tearalla, a new hire, “As a broker, my Navigator skills are transferable and aligned with my current responsibilities. I will continue to provide outreach, education, and enrollment assistance to newly enrolled consumers and consumers seeking to re-enroll in the Marketplace.”

These transitioning Navigators will be doing outreach and drawing on their strong connections — including with Navigators — in the communities where they worked for the first two enrollment cycles where they already have strong connections. Said Tearalla, “Networking with existing community stakeholders is ongoing.”

Everyone wins — employers and Navigators alike — when these Navigators transition into new roles as brokers. According to one hiring manager, they were able to hire more former Navigators because money spent for training was covered by WIOA dollars. The hiring manager was also excited that the new hires have great working relationships with groups and community leaders.

New hires are eager to continue enrollment work. They are already reaching out to previous community contacts to spread the word about their new role and the ongoing opportunity to get health insurance. Said one former enrollment assister, Olivia, “I’m excited about the opportunity to continue to enroll folks in the ACA.” It’s a wonderful opportunity for the overall enrollment push in Illinois, too. Having seasoned pros with strong community connections on the front lines of Affordable Care Act outreach like Olivia and Tearalla can help set up a strong foundation for the upcoming enrollment cycle and get even more people connected to health insurance.

This post originally appeared on Enroll America's blog.

Bryce Marable
Health Policy Analyst
Health & Disability Advocates

Monday, November 2, 2015

An Observation on the “Observation Status” Law: It Doesn’t Work

The law, called the NOTICE Act, requires hospitals to notify patients hospitalized for more than 24 hours if they are on observation status. The law won’t go into effect until next August, which is great, because it could be better.

The way the law is written right now, it’s almost like asking a patient under anesthesia to sign a consent form. Within the first 24 hours of being admitted to the hospital for a medical event, many people—especially older people—aren’t able to focus on complicated issues of their status and its consequences.

Being on observation status has significant financial consequences. Observation status is considered outpatient service by Medicare. All care, supplies and procedures are covered under Part B, not Part A, and therefore are subject to Part B's higher deductible and co-pays. On top of that, most hospital pharmacies do not contract for Part D drug payments. Patients who have to take their normal medicines while under observation status will have to submit reimbursement requests to Medicare.

If a patient requires skilled nursing care after being discharged, Medicare will only pay for it following three days of inpatient hospitalization. Being on observation status—an outpatient—doesn't count toward the three-day requirement.

One Woman’s $3,900 Surprise

Jean Arnau, an 84-year-old who spent five days in the hospital with a fractured spine is a perfect example of how observation status poses consequences after discharge. She was in a hospital bed, wore a hospital gown and ID bracelet, ate hospital food and received regular nursing care.

When she was discharged and needed to transfer to a skilled nursing facility for rehabilitation, her family learned that she had never been formally admitted as an inpatient to the hospital at all. Instead, she'd been classified as an outpatient under observation and the nursing facility would charge almost $4000.

What To Do Until There’s a Real Fix

It’s great that the NOTICE Act requires patients receive “accurate, real-time information with respect to their classification, the services and benefits available to them, and the respective cost-sharing requirements they are subject to." It’s just that doing it within 24 hours of admission is too often not fair.

Talk to your clients, and their loved ones, before the need arises. The Center for Medicare Advocacy has put together a thorough packet explaining what your clients can do to protect themselves.

You can help by discussing these things with them:

Urge them to ask about their status each day they are in the hospital. It can change from day to day.
Tell them to ask the hospital doctor to reconsider your case or refer it to the hospital committee that decides status.
Tell them to ask their primary care physician to state whether observation status is justified. If not, ask him or her to call the hospital to explain the medical reasons why you should be admitted as an inpatient.
If they need rehab or other continuing care but learn that Medicare won't cover a a skilled nursing facility, tell them to ask their doctor if they qualify for similar care at home through Medicare's home health care benefit, or for Medicare-covered care in a rehabilitation hospital.
After the fact, let them know they can appeal a Medicare decision of non-coverage. All the avenues for appeal are spelled out in the Center for Medicare Advocacy’s packet.

Preparing loved-ones before they are hospitalized isn't a fix to law, but it will empower future patients with a plan and knowledge of their rights. After having these conversations, patients will be more enabled to fight for their rights while Washington hopefully gets around to making much needed improvements to the law.

Phillip Lanier
Health Policy Intern
Health & Disability Advocates

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Halloween Marks a Scary Time for Health Care in Illinois

If things don’t change soon, health care could be in for major setbacks in Illinois. The State budget battle is approaching its fifth month and counting.  So far, Medicaid payments continue per court order, but other services are beginning to run out of money:
  • State payments to 911 call centers throughout the Illinois have been suspended, putting emergency services in jeopardy. 
  • Illinois has stopped paying medical and dental claims for 150,000 state employees. The long-term cost of delayed care for a group of this size could be far greater than the cost of paying for care and preventative care today. 
  • The state’s Psychiatric Leadership Capacity Grant, which was $27 million in the State’s FY2015 budget, is no longer being funded, affecting most of the 140 community health centers in Illinois and thousands of people who rely on them for psychiatric care. 
The longer the State budget impasse continues, the more services will be cut. These include services that indirectly have an impact on Illinois health care, such as after-school programs to keep kids out of trouble and supplemental nutrition programs, especially for the older adults.

It’s Not Too Late to Raise Your Voice!  

Contact your State legislators to let them know how concerned you are about the future of health care in Illinois. Tell them that Illinois seniors and children are especially vulnerable. We can’t let cuts affect them.Many program cuts will result in greater costs to the State in the not-so-long run. For example:
  • Home care services and home delivered meals to seniors citizens cost a fraction of the $75,000 annual cost of nursing home care. Cuts to these programs will mean more seniors ending up in nursing homes, paid for by Medicaid. 
  • Cut backs to after-school programs and Department of Children and Family Services support for older children will mean more kids and young adults intersecting with the justice system. Even short-term incarceration can pay for a full year of after-school activities for a child.
  • Cut backs to mental health services will only cause an increase in city and country jail populations where the State will not only have to provide mental health services, but food, clothing and shelter. 
And remind them that, as the State’s infrastructure crumbles and the State’s bond ratings tumble, it will only get more and more expensive to catch up.

Phillip Lanier
Health Policy Intern
Health & Disability Advocates

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Chicago needs a plan to sign up its uninsured; here's what to do

Health care coverage has an impact on the economic well-being of lower- and moderate-income people; therefore enrolling the uninsured should be considered a key economic strategy for Chicago and all of Illinois. Unfortunately, this isn't the case.

Sixty-three percent of Illinois' working population eligible for a private path to health coverage under the Affordable Care Act is still uninsured, with large swaths residing in Chicago (see a breakdown of the numbers across Illinois here).

Given those statistics, Mayor Rahm Emanuel needs all hands on deck—from business leaders to health insurance brokers, from community institutions like public libraries to religious leaders—to encourage people to sign up.

Open enrollment for 2016 health insurance coverage starts Nov. 1, so the city is in serious need of a plan. We propose a Commission for Healthy Chicago, similar to the mayor's effort on violence prevention, comprising city staff and community, business, faith and health care leaders to build a cross-sector strategy for outreach and enrollment. Emanuel can improve the economic security of working-poor Chicagoans simply by putting the clout of his office behind such a strategy.

Chicago shouldn't expect the state to lead. In the midst of the state's fiscal disarray, Get Covered Illinois has lost most of its staff and has stated it will rely more heavily on “partners” such as providers, brokers and nonprofits for enrollment support. GCI's limited capacity can't get the job done; nor should the city and state expect nonprofits and health care providers to fill the gap in funding or leadership.

The Task Ahead

With only 37 percent of the estimated 942,000 marketplace-eligible residents having enrolled, Illinois ranks 20th out of the 37 states that operate their marketplaces using the federal HealthCare.gov website.  

Here's another way to look at it: Two years into ACA's health insurance efforts, almost two-thirds of Illinois' marketplace population—the lower- to moderate-income people for whom the ACA was created—remain uninsured. Almost half of them are eligible for a tax credit or subsidy to make their plan more affordable.

Overall, about 73 percent of the nearly 600,000 people who are eligible but still uninsured live and work in the Chicago metro area. Within these areas there are significant proportions of the population who do not speak English as their primary language. In nearly half the metro area, at least one-third of the population speaks Spanish or another non-English language. In several of these areas, primarily in Chicago and suburban Cook County, more than 50 percent do not speak English as their first language. Notably, the areas with the highest proportion of non-English speakers are the same areas with the lowest share of eligible population enrolled.

 Other states have successfully enrolled low- to moderate-income people in the ACA health insurance marketplace. They have done this through:
• Use of data to target communities with large, underserved marketplace-eligible populations.
• Exploiting numerous local avenues to provide extensive education and outreach, including through events and local media, to directly connect the uninsured with help to enroll in coverage.
• Meaningful collaboration with brokers and the small-business community.

A healthy Chicago economy goes hand in hand with a healthy population that is ready to learn, work and is not burdened by health care costs. Let's not let Chicago and Illinois fall behind when it comes to covering working families.

This article originally appeared in Crain's Chicago Business.

Barbara Otto
Health & Disability Advocates